A vowel is a sound where air coming from the lungs is not blocked by the mouth or throat. All normal English words contain at least one vowel. Vowels have two sounds: A short sound and a long sound.
A, E, I, O, U and Y are the English vowels, although 'Y' can also behave as a consonant when it is at the beginning of a word.
Long vowel includes those vowel sounds whose pronunciation are the same as its letter name. A, E, I, O and U are the long vowel sounds. When a short word or syllable ends with a vowel-consonant-e combination (a-k-e), the vowel is usually long and the "e" at the end of the word is silent. However, this rule does not apply in all cases.
1. Bake: When 'A' is followed by 'E' and a single sound is heard i.e. A.
2. Ride: Here 'I' is followed by 'E' and a single sound is heard i.e. I.
There is a rule for pronunciation of long vowels. 'When two vowels go walking the first one does the talking.'
1. Long A: A as in mail.
Here, the sound of A is heard.
2. Long E: E as in tea.
Here, the sound of E is heard.
3. Long I: I as in kite.
Here, the sound of I is heard.
4. Long O: O as in road.
Here, the sound of O is heard.
5. Long U: U as in glue.
Here, the sound of U is heard.