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Human Body

Introduction

The human body is a kind of machine. It consist of many parts and systems that work together to carry out our body functions.
From head to toe, the human body can be divided into head, neck, middle part, two arms and two legs. These parts further can be divided into upper arm, forearm, elbow, foot, knee and shoulder etc.

Let's study the structure of human body in detail.

A human body is made up of billions of tiny building blocks, called 'cells'. Our body contains hundreds of different cells that do different jobs. Cells are too small to see with the naked eyes. Scientists can photograph them through powerful 'microscopes'. Cells of the same type usually group together to form a 'tissue'. Our cells and tissues are organized into larger body parts called 'organs'.

Our Body Organs

1. Brain - Our brain works like a computer. It sits inside a skull, which protects it from injury. Brain sends signals to our body to read, write, run, feel hot or cold. It stores lots of information, called memory.

2. Lungs - Lungs are one of the largest organs in our body. We have two lungs in our body. They both close together because they work together. The lung on the left side, is a bit smaller than the one on the right side, because it has to make room for our heart to fit in our chest too. We use our lungs to breathe in and out. Lungs supply our body with oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.

3. Kidney- We have two kidneys in our body. The kidneys clean our blood. They are shaped like kidney beans and are found just under our ribs. They get rid of waste products carried in the blood. They check out the minerals, vitamins and other nutrients that we get from our food.

4. Heart- Heart is one of the most important organ of our body. Our heart beats in our chest. The heart pumps blood and sends it to our whole body. It is an amazingly powerful organ. We can feel and hear our heart beat. Our heart beat gets faster when we run.

5. Skin- Skin is the largest organ of our body. Skin covers our whole body. It has many layers. The upper layer of skin is covered with tiny hairs. Different people can have different skin colors. Skin protects our internal body parts, helps us to sweat and maintains body temperature.

6. Eyes - We have two eyes. Our eyes help us to see the things around us. Eyes also help us to identify different colors and analyze the depth of any place or object.

7. Liver - Liver is a large organ located next to the stomach on the right side of our body. Our liver controls the sugar level, helps in protein synthesis, breaks down the fat and helps to remove waste products from our body.

8. Stomach - Stomach is an organ that stores the food which we eat and pass it on to the small intestine for digestion. In the stomach, the food gets broken down.

9. Small Intestine - Small intestine follows the stomach. It is around 5 meters long. The small intestine is longer than large intestine but smaller in diameter, hence it is called 'small intestine'. Our food gets digested and absorbed in the small intestine.

10. Large Intestine - The large intestine follows the small intestine. The undigested food enters the large intestine and ejected out of the body.

11. Bladder - The bladder collects the urine, which our kidneys make. When the bladder gets full, the urine is passed out of the body.

Our Bones

Bones give our body shape and strength. The inner frame of our body is called a skeleton, made of bones and joints. To see bones, doctors use a special camera called 'X -ray'. X-ray takes pictures of hard body parts, like bones. To see the body organs, doctors use another special camera called a 'scanner'. The scanner takes pictures of soft body parts, like the stomach.

Our skeleton is formed of these bones -

- Skull
- Jaw-bone
- Shoulder blade
- Ribs
- Spine
- Pelvis
- Ankle-bone

Organ Systems

An organ system is made up of a group of organs that work together to perform one function. Our body is made up of several organ systems.

1. Digestive system- Mouth, food pipe, stomach, liver, small intestine and large intestine are part of the digestive system. Our digestive organs break down the food to provide our body energy and raw materials.

2. Nervous system- Brain, spinal cord and nerves are part of the nervous system. Our nervous system carries electrical signals around our body. We need this system to see, hear, think and react.

3. Muscle system- Muscles are attached to the bones and help us to move. Our muscle system is made of tissues that help us to move our body parts. Without muscles, we cannot walk, talk, smile, run or jump.

4. Respiratory system - Lungs, windpipe, nose and diaphragm are part of the respiratory system. The respiratory system allows us to breathe.

5. Excretory system - Kidneys and bladder are part of the excretory system. The excretory system removes the waste or unnecessary material like urine and feces out of our body.

Now you know how every human body functions.

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